Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a rheumatic disease that leads to decreased functional capacity and mental health. The pain generated by KOA has been shown to be associated with decreased joint function, disability, an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms, worse coping with the disease, decreased quality of life, and cognitive factors. However, the relationship between KOA and decreased cognitive health has not been fully elucidated. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a diagnostic term that refers to decreased cognitive health, describing the situation between preserved cognition and dementia. It is used to describe people with a decline in one or more cognitive domains but who still have their sociofunctional performance intact. This literature review aimed to investigate the relationship between KOA and MCI. The search terms “knee osteoarthritis” and “mild cognitive impairment” were used using the BVS, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Scielo databases, using the “and” connector. The articles that had one of the search terms in their title, both search terms in their abstract and that investigated both health conditions were selected. Studies that did not refer to humans, that were abstracts or clinical trial records of one of the articles already found in the search, or that were in duplicate were excluded. As a result, five articles were included in the literature review and evaluated. Studies have shown that MCI increases the risk of KOA and that practicing Tai Chi is effective in reducing knee pain, pain-related behavior, and the number of analgesics used by elderly individuals with MCI.